Retail trade in the form of modern super markets is a relatively new concept in Egypt and was originally designed to serve high‐income people. The Mansour Company originally followed this new pattern and it was able to develop a successful business model along these lines. However, as low‐income people constitute a majority of the Egyptian population, the company could not ignore that segment any longer. It capitalized on its well developed management system and its retail experience in the Egyptian market to adapt its high‐end busines
North Africa and the Middle East
Housing is a major challenge for the rising young population of developing countries. For households who have their dwelling as their main asset and shelter, the robustness of the construction is crucial, especially in earthquake-prone areas. Yet, in low-income markets, conventional construction methods are not only insufficient to ensure earthquake-safety but their inefficiencies also increase construction costs.
In Morocco, despite the government’s efforts to expand its grid-based coverage, about 9% of the rural population could not be cost-effectively connected. Given that Morocco enjoys 3,000 hours of sun per year, solar energy was therefore thought to be a cost-effective alternative. TEMASOL is a joint-venture between the oil and electricity French companies TOTAL and EDF created in 2002 within the framework of a national program championed by Morocco’s National Electricity Office aiming at electrifying rural regions of the country through renewable sources of energy.
In many developing countries, including Morocco, there is still a high dependence on traditional biomass fuel in rural areas, which has many negative consequences, such as deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions, health issues and gender inequality. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) represents a safe and clean alternative to traditional energy sources.
Tiviski is Africa’s first camel milk dairy, founded by Nancy Abeiderrahmane in 1987 in Mauritania—an arid desert nation, where most of the 3 million inhabitants live as nomadic livestock herders, keeping camels, sheep, goats and cows. It now also processes cow and goat milk for domestic consumption. Tiviski sources all of its milk from semi-nomadic subsistence herders, enabling them to earn incomes while still maintaining a traditional lifestyle. Fresh camel milk and other milk products have replaced dairy products imported from Europe, bolstering the Mauritania’s economy.